The Cosmic Scale

The Cosmic Scale

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How large is the universe? Where does it begin and end? And how does it expand? These are some of the biggest questions of astronomy. And while humanity is so small that we may never be able to fully understand the true scale of the universe, advancements in technology are helping us to look ever-deeper into the wilds of our existence- towards the edge of our observable universe, known as the Cosmic Horizon. Today, we will analyse the universe, its laws, and its awe-inspiring scale.

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https://youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkoaIad9k4NIlsG6g-almaZH6MzR_T5eV

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Thumbnail made by Wimptastic: https://twitter.com/Wimptastical

MUSIC:
Special thanks to Lombus, who allowed me to use his song Doppler Shores in the title screen:
- Source: https://lombus.bandcamp.com/track/doppler-shores
- Artist: https://linktr.ee/lombusmusic

The following songs by Chris Zabriskie are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 licence. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
- The Theatrical Poster...: http://chriszabriskie.com/vendaface/
- Unfoldment, Revealment... http://chriszabriskie.com/reappear/
- Cylinder Five: http://chriszabriskie.com/cylinders/
- Take Off and Shoot a Zero: http://chriszabriskie.com/stuntisland/
- Oxygen Garden: http://chriszabriskie.com/divider/
Artist: http://chriszabriskie.com/

Other songs are from the YouTube Audio Library:
- Landing | Godmode
- Tundras | Amulets
- Dolphin-esque | Godmode
- Space Chatter | Doug Maxwell
- Traversing | Godmode
- At The Precipice of a Dying Light | Dan Bodan

FOOTAGE:
The space scenes in this video were captured using SpaceEngine Pro, a virtual universe simulator:
http://spaceengine.org/
Get SpaceEngine on Steam: https://store.steampowered.com/app/314650/SpaceEngine/

Stock footage provided by Videezy.com

VIDEO CLIPS:
- NASA Redshift Animations: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnSVBLXaoO8&t
- Dark Energy Expansion: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PGVJgP-YWI
- Zooming into the Ultra Deep Field: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=le3ASDvZy_s
- Virtual Clips of Hubble Repair: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoqD-6Z8iKQ
- Final Servicing Mission: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGFfq4gAwQw
- Observable Universe Growing ESA: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F353xaKnQ2I
- ESO Type 1a supernova https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m1Wl_UtTEj0
- Redshift Expansion [Creative Commons]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dLAPTNu2A_s
- Expanding Universe Animation [Hubble ESA]: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T9lkcgu5iwM

IMAGES:
- Observable Universe Logarithmic Illustration: https://fb.me/observableuniverse
- Hubble Images: https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hubble/main/index.html
- Observable Universe Graphic: By Andrew Z. Colvin - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=13251597
- Accelerated Expansion Diagram: By Design Alex Mittelmann, Coldcreation, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=31985853
- Ursa Major: https://thenounproject.com/term/ursa-major/1126831/
- Night Sky Image: https://wallpaperscraft.com/download/night_sky_stars_trees_113820/2560x1440

SOURCES OF INFORMATION:
- Number of Stars in the Universe: https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Herschel/How_many_stars_are_there_in_the_Universe
- Einstein and Achievements: https://interestingengineering.com/7-of-albert-einsteins-inventions-that-changed-the-world
- Edwin Hubble's 1929 Discovery: https://www.pnas.org/content/112/11/3173
- The Hubble Deep Field Images: https://esahubble.org/science/deep_fields/
- How Much of the Unobservable Universe will we See Someday: https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2019/03/05/how-much-of-the-unobservable-universe-will-we-someday-be-able-to-see/?sh=7b6bac43f827
- Some interesting notes on the sphere expanding model: https://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/physics/Relativity/GR/centre.html
- Type 1a Supernovae: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/phenomena/2014/08/28/type-1a-supernovas-cosmic-candle-mystery/
- Frieman et al., Dark Energy & the Accelerating Universe: https://arxiv.org/pdf/0803.0982.pdf
- Size of the Unobservable Universe [Oxford Physicists]: https://arxiv.org/abs/1101.5476

TIMESTAMPS:
0:00 Introduction
2:23 Defining the Universe
6:51 The Big Bang
9:12 The Observable Universe
10:53 The Hubble Telescope
11:46 The Hubble Deep Field
16:49 Cosmic Expansion
19:40 Redshift
21:48 The Cosmic Horizon and the Unobservable Universe
25:36 Accelerating Expansion
28:29 Dark Energy
30:14 The End of the Universe

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